Islam and jihad
10) Jihad - the first 1,300 years
Egypt - Al-Qaida in Iraq warned Pope Benedict XVI on Monday that its war
against Christianity and the West will go on until Islam takes over the
world, and Iran's supreme leader called for more protests over the pontiff's
remarks on Islam.
and the West are doomed"...
TEHRAN, Iran - At the October 26, 2005, Tehran conference, [Iran president
Mahmoud] Ahmadinejad spoke ... Ahmadinejad
said Iran has developed a strategic "war preparation plan" for what it
calls the "destruction of Anglo-Saxon civilization."
Net Daily, 10/17/06
of the religion of peace
shown above, violent jihad and its proponents are threatening the West as
you read this. How many of those threats are credible and how many are empty
bravado is anyone's guess, but some fraction are real. Islamic jihad is
killing people around the world - a toll that is being added to every week.
rage against civilization is nothing new. The first thousand years of Islamic
jihad took far more lives than the 9/11 attacks and spread far greater terror.
Early Muslims systematically killed huge portions of their non-Islamic neighbors,
and their jihadi warriors pushed far north in an attempt to convert or eradicate
much of Europe. Jihad was then, as it is now, primarily a product of
Islamic theology - not a reaction against American policies, George
Bush, western decadence, or anything else. The
West may have its share of vice and shortcomings, but it was centuries of
Islamic jihad that provoked that violent defensive thrust from Europe referred
to as the First Crusade.
history of Islamic jihad which led up to the First Crusade is briefly summarized
below. Scan the timeline if just to ask yourself if or at what point YOU
would have ordered a defensive strike:
Muhammad and approximately 75 to 200 followers are driven out of Mecca
by persecution. They are invited to take refuge in the farming community
of Medina, and arrive on September 24, 622. For multiple reasons,
Muhammad and his Muhajirun establish a religious syndicate. Resistance to
recognize Muhammad's religious authority is perhaps for the first recorded
time met with violence.
Muhammad adopts the legitimized Bedouin
practice of raiding and killing and takes to ambushing caravans.
Raiding attacks at Waddam, Safwan, and Dul-'Ashir take place.
A vast annual merchant
convoy of great value is headed from Mecca to Syria. It is supported
by many troops, well aware of Muhammad's reputation by this time. In March
of 624, Muhammad successfully ambushes it at Badr. His strategy of overcoming
superior numbers is credited to shrewd tactics and, perhaps for the first
time, the promise of heavenly orgies and wealth for all who die while fighting
for him. The financial blow to Mecca is significant; the newfound wealth
to Muhammad and the Muhajirun more so.
Attacks are made upon Bani Salim, Eid-ul-Fitr, Zakat-ul-Fitr, Bani Qainuqa,
Sawiq, Ghatfan, and Bahran.
Attacks made at Uhud, Humra-ul-Asad, Banu Nudair, and Dhatur-Riqa.
Attacks at Badru-Ukhra, Dumatul-Jandal, and Banu Mustalaqq Nikah.
Battle of the Trench (where Muhammad is significantly wounded). Additional
battles fought at Ahzab, Bani Quraiza, Bani Lahyan, Ghaiba, and Khaibar.
Unable to attain victory over the Quarish of Mecca, Muhammad signs the Al-Hudaybiyya
- a ten year peace treaty.
Eighteen months after signing the agreed upon ceasefire, Muhammad marshals
his forces outside Mecca. During the Holy
Truce months he surprise attacks and conquers Quarish forces.
His violation of the peace treaty is celebrated as the first "hudna".
Two years before Muhammad's death of a fever, he launches the Tabuk Crusades,
in which he led 30,000 jihadists against the Byzantine Christians. He had
heard a report that a huge army had amassed to attack Arabia, but the report
turned out to be a false rumor. The Byzantine army never materialized.
turned around and went home, but not before extracting "agreements" from
northern tribes. They
could enjoy the "privilege" of living under Islamic "protection" (read:
not be attacked by Islam), if they paid a tax. This tax sets the stage for
Muhammad's and the later Caliphs' policies. If
the attacked city or region did not want to convert to Islam, then they
paid a jizya tax. If they converted, then they paid a zakat
tax. Either way, money flowed back to the Islamic treasury in Arabia or
to the local Muslim governor.
Under the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, the Muslim Crusaders reconquer and sometimes
conquer for the first time the polytheists of Arabia. These Arab polytheists
had to convert to Islam or die. They did not have the choice of remaining
in their faith and paying a tax.
The Muslim Crusaders, led by Khalid al-Walid, a superior but bloodthirsty
military commander, whom Muhammad nicknamed the Sword of Allah for his ferocity
in battle (Tabari, 8:158 / 1616-17), conquer the city of Ullays along the
Euphrates River (in today's Iraq). Khalid captures and beheads so many that
a nearby canal, into which the blood flowed, was called Blood Canal (Tabari
11:24 / 2034-35).
Additional attacks at Oman, Hadramaut, Kazima, Walaja, Ulleis, and Anbar.
At the Battle of Yarmuk in Syria the Muslim Crusaders defeat the Byzantines.
Today Osama bin Laden draws inspiration from the defeat, and especially
from an anecdote about Khalid al-Walid... Osama bin Laden quotes Khalid
and says that his fighters love death more than we in the West love life.
Additional attacks on Basra, Damascus, Ajnadin, Namaraq, and Saqatia.
Around 4,000 Jewish, Christian, and Samaritan peasants are executed from
Gaza to Cesarea. Muslim chronicler Baladhuri would later record in the ninth
century that 40,000 Jews had successfully been destroyed in Cesarea by his
Abu Bakr calls for a war against infidels.
The Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, who is regarded as particularly brutal.
Muslim Crusaders besiege and finally conquer Damascus. Additional battles
of Bridge, Buwaib, and Fahl.
Muslim Crusaders defeat Byzantines decisively at Battle of Yarmuk.
Muslim Crusaders conquer Iraq at the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah (some date
it in 635 or 636).
Defeating Roman forces, Muslim Crusaders conquer and annex Jerusalem, taking
it from the Byzantines.
Muslim Crusaders conquer Iran, except along Caspian Sea.
Thousands die from starvation in and around Constantinople due to ravaged
and burned fields by Islamic raiders.
Muslim Crusaders conquer Egyptian forces.
Muslim Crusaders control Syria and Palestine.
Battle of Ravy in Persia.
Conquest of Azarbaijan.
Muslim Crusaders conquer North Africa.
Caliph Umar is assassinated by a Persian prisoner of war; Uthman ibn Affan
is elected third Caliph, who is regarded by many Muslims as gentler than
Muslim Crusaders conquer Cyprus, Tripoli in North Africa, and establish
Islamic rule in Iran, Afghanistan, and Sind.
Byzantine campaign begins.
Caliph Uthman is assassinated by disgruntled Muslim soldiers; Ali ibn Abi
Talib, son-in-law and cousin to Muhammad, who married the prophet's daughter
Fatima through his first wife Khadija, is set up as Caliph.
Battle of the Camel, in which Aisha, Muhammad's wife, leads a rebellion
against Ali for not avenging Uthman's assassination. Ali's partisans win.
Battle of Siffin between Ali and Muslim governor of Jerusalem, arbitration
goes against Ali.
Battle of Nahrawan.
Egypt finally falls to Islamic crusaders.
Murder of Ali by an extremist; Ali's supporters acclaim his son Hasan as
next Caliph, but he comes to an agreement with Muawiyyah I and retires to
the Caliphate of Muawiyyah I. He founds Umayyid dynasty and moves capital
from Medina to Damascus
Arabs besiege Constantinople, capital of Byzantine Empire
Massacre of Hussein (Muhammad's grandson), his family, and his supporters
in Karbala, Iraq.
During the Caliphate of of Abd-al-Malik, Christian farmers of the Negev
and Samaria are driven out. Pillaged and abandoned, the farms go desolate.
Battle of Kufa.
Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem, six decades after Muhammad's
Abd al-Malik singles out Christians for forced conversion to Islam or death
- often by crucifixion.
Abd al-Malik restores Umayyad rule.
Muslim Crusaders conquer the lower Indus Valley.
Muslim Crusaders conquer Spain and impose the kingdom of Andalus. Also invade
Conquest of Multan.
Invasion of Constantinople.
Cordova, Spain, becomes seat of Arab governorship.
The Muslim Crusaders are stopped at the Battle of Poitiers; that is, Franks
(France) halt Arab advance. The Battle of Tours.
The Battle of Bagdoura in North Africa.
The Battle of Rupar Thutha.
The Battle of Ravy.
The Abbasids conquer Kufah and overthrow Umayyids.
The Battle of Zab.
Foundation of Umayyid emirate in Cordova, Spain, setting up an independent
kingdom from Abbasids.
Foundation of Baghdad
Caliph al-Mansur visits Jerusalem and orders an identifying mark be stamped
on the hands of all Christians and Jews.
The Battle of Saragossa in Spain.
Foundation of the Great Mosque of Cordova
During the Caliphate of Harun al-Rashid, Christians and Jews are ordered
to wear yellow identification patches on their clothing. Eventually yellow
would be used to signify "Jew" and blue used to identify "Christian".
Neither Jews nor Christians were allowed to wear green - green was reserved
for use by Muslims only.
Rise of Idrisid emirs (Muslim Crusaders) in Morocco; foundation of Fez;
Christoforos, a Muslim who converted to Christianity, is executed.
Autonomous Aghlabid dynasty (Muslim Crusaders) in Tunisia.
Caliph Harun al-Rashid orders the destruction of non-Muslim prayer houses
and of the Church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem.
Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sardinia, Italy.
Christians in Palestine are attacked; many flee the country.
Muslim Crusaders capture of Palermo, Italy; raids in Southern Italy.
Under Caliph al-Mutawakkil, once again Christians and Jews are required
to wear the blue and yellow patches, respectively.
Caliph al-Matawakkil orders the destruction of non-Muslim houses of prayer,
and orders Christians and Jews to attach wooden devils to the doors of their
Revolt of the Christians of Hims (Syria)
Aghlabids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Sicily, raid Corsica, Italy, France.
Revolt of black slaves in Iraq.
Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate in Tunisia; these Muslim Crusaders occupy
Byzantine military revival, they retake old territories, such as Cyprus
(964) and Tarsus (969).
The Ikhshid, a particularly harsh Muslim ruler, writes to Emperor Romanus,
boasting of his control over the holy places.
The Church of the Resurrection (known as Church of Holy Sepulcher in Latin
West) is burned down by Muslims; more churches in Jerusalem are attacked
Conversion of Qarakhanid Turks to Islam
Anti-Christian riots in Jerusalem
Fatimids (Muslim Crusaders) conquer Egypt and found Cairo.
Seljuks enter conquered Islamic territories from the East.
Israel and southern Syria are again conquered by the Fatimids.
The seventeen Indian campaigns of Mahmud of Ghazna.
First persecutions by al-Hakim; the Church of St. Mark in Fustat, Egypt,
Looting and destruction of the Church of the Resurrection by al-Hakim (see
937). Also included removing the physical foundation of the building and
the adjacent cemetery.
Beginning of al-Hakim's oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians.
Decrees like having to wear black turbans, Christians having to wear a cross
around their necks the length of a cubit and five "ratl"s in weight,
Jews having to wear a wooden calf around their necks of the same weight,...
Earthquake in Palestine; the dome of the Dome of the Rock collapses.
Collapse of Umayyid Caliphate and establishment of 15 minor independent
dynasties throughout Muslim Andalus
Reconstruction of the Church of the Resurrection completed
Creation of Almoravid (Muslim Crusaders) movement in Mauretania; Almoravids
(also known as Murabitun) are coalition of western Saharan Berbers; followers
of Islam, focusing on the Qur'an, the Hadith, and Maliki law.
Seljuk Prince Tughrul enters Baghdad, consolidation of the Seljuk Sultanate.
Confiscation of property of Church of the Resurrection
An Arab mob seizes the vizier of Granada, Spain, Joseph HaNaid, and crucifies
him. Muslims massacre the city's Jewish quarter that night, December 30
- an approximate 5,000 murdered.
Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk Turks (Muslim Crusaders) defeat Byzantines and
occupy much of Anatolia.
Turks (Muslim Crusaders) invade Palestine.
Conquest of Jerusalem by Turks (Muslim Crusaders)
Seljuks (Muslim Crusaders) capture Nicea (Iznik) and make it their capital
Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) conquer western Ghana.
Atsiz b. Awaq marches on Jerusalem promising to give them quarter. They
open the gates to him whereby his forces slaughter 3,000. Awaq proceeds
to repeat variants of this successful feint at Ramla, Gaza, al-'Arish, Damascus,
Toledo is taken back by Christian armies.
Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) (see 1050) send help to Andalus, Battle of
Almoravids (Muslim Crusaders) occupy all of Andalus except Saragossa and
Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus I asks western Christendom for help against
Seljuk invasions of his territory; Seljuks are Muslim Turkish family of
eastern origins; see 970.
Pope Urban II preaches the first Crusade; composed largely of civilian volunteers,
the initial thrust is utterly slaughtered. A second attempt by government
soldiers captures Jerusalem in 1099. (Come the 20th century, all the aforementioned
provocations would be forgotten by many, and this year misremembered as
the year Christianity went on a senseless killing spree.)
Jews in Yemen forced into converting to Islam or killed.
Jews in Morroco forced into converting to Islam or killed.
Jews in Baghdad forced into converting to Islam or killed.
The conquest of Constantinople.
Fez - Arab mobs attempt to purge all their resident Jews, leaving only 11
out of thousands.
Jews in Yemen again forced into converting to Islam or killed.
About the time a nervous King Louis XIV of France was cutting a deal with
Ottoman empire Sultan Mehmet IV, Polish hussars led by King Jan Sobieski
led a devastating attack against the Sultan's superior forces at the gates
of Vienna. It was so successful and so shocked the Muslim army that this
September 12 battle saw the last Turkish siege of Vienna and the turning
point in the thousand year armed expansion of Islam. The Ottoman empire's
northern borders would only shrink from here on.
Ali Burzi Pahsa attempts to purge Libya of Jews.
Jews in Morroco forced into converting to Islam or killed.
Conquest of West Africa by Uthman dan Fodio.
Muslims of Algiers massacre Jews.
Muslims of Algiers massacre Jews.
Muslims of Algiers massacre Jews.
Three hundred Jews killed in Marrakesh, Morocco.
Ottoman Turks massacre over 200,000 Christian Armenians.
An additional 600,000 to 800,000 Armenians massacred by the Islamic government
and their property seized for protesting sharia law in their country.
and twenty-first-century jihad continued here ***
Saudi government] "warned against hurling charges of terrorism and fascism
at Muslims without regard to the spotless history of Islamic civilization",
the statement said.
Yahoo News, 8/15/06
Jihad - the last 100 years